eucalyptus burning temperature

The long history of widespread eucalyptus planting has resulted in several species becoming controversial during the 1980s. It wasn’t based on any specific studies, she told me, but was rather an agreement among the experts—as she recalled it, a sort of, “This is what we think. Eucalyptus Firewood. “Every piece of vegetation is flammable,” he says. Omeo gum (Eucalyptus neglecta), which grows in USDA zones 7 through 11 from 40 to 60 feet tall, survives temperatures as low as zero degrees Fahrenheit. “But the thing that’s most concerning is the volume of material it can produce.”. To find out where that rating came from, I followed a twisted path from document to document, each taking me a little further back in time. The seven-boled tree is on the uphill side of the trail. On the other side of the debate, the Bay Area’s many native plant advocates have their own long list of complaints, also mostly separate from the debate about the trees’ flammability. Eucalyptus Oil. It kills germs and stops infections from forming. Yet Rice, who helped plan UC Berkeley’s portion of the FEMA application, says that factor is mitigated by the higher moisture content of bay laurel leaves. 2. He is among the pro-eucalyptus faction’s star fire authorities, although his expertise, he admits, is not in wildland fire. At his urging, I did the same. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. The original question—whether blue gums are uniquely, dangerously flammable—often serves as proxy to these other debates. Because its components are easier to ignite, a grass fire can also spread much faster than a fire in trees. In California, the trees have spread so prolifically that there are entire woodlands almost completely made up of gum trees. This page lists some of those species suitable for growing in the colder regions of t… The high oil content of eucalyptus leaves also means that they burn hotter than less oily leaves. Berkeley, CA 94710 Trees near the ridgeline can collect inches of fog-drip a year, sometimes even rivaling the amount they might collect from rainfall. We’re deep in Tilden Regional Park, standing on a fire road between a feller buncher and a chipper. But again, this is not necessarily more than native species—for example, coyote brush, an early-succession bush that could replace eucs in unshaded areas, has a heating value of about 8–10,000 BTU per pound, depending on the time of year. “For most eucalypts, fire was not a destroyer but a liberator,” writes fire ecologist Stephen Pyne in his book Burning Bush. We target grass. Every story from Bay Nature magazine is the product of a team of people dedicated to connecting our readers to the world around them and increasing environmental literacy. “The forests are beautiful. Gallup is characteristically diplomatic. The heat of the fire forms a convection column, with 60-mile-per-hour winds that rip burning strips of bark from the trees and toss them upward. Second, Maloney says removing the eucalyptus would also remove windbreaks.. Many species of eucalyptus both tolerate fire, hiding from the flames behind thick bark, and depend on it to open their seed pods. We target grass. Many of the hills on the east side of the Caldecott Tunnel are covered in grass, speckled with drooping oak, much as the landscape above Berkeley and Oakland would’ve looked before Oakland developer Frank Colton Havens planted them with eucalyptus. Still others argued that removing any trees would be irresponsible in an age of climate change, and that native trees would not be able to take up the slack. Eases Breathing Problems. zachstgeorge.com. Jack Gescheidt, a fervent euc-defender and photographer who makes pictures of nudes posing with trees, told me that he conducted an informal test, lighting both wet and dry leaves from blue gum and bay laurel trees over his stovetop. The ground is muddy. But now, standing by Grassetti’s favorite tree, even this most damning of blue gum statistics seems woefully abstract. It’s his job to make sure that if and when this forest burns, it doesn’t take half of Berkeley with it. Near the crest of the hill, we come upon a large blue gum with seven boles. The picture this paints is of California and other areas experiencing serious eucalyptus fire damage. The workers who cut the trees then didn’t treat the stumps with herbicide, and now they’re regrown, more trunks and closer together. That stuff”—the brush—“is going to expand here. Not just any fire, but the fire, the fire that all this is about. Eucalyptus bark is light; on the ground, it easily transmits flames. This accelerates the eucalyptus fire hazards in a region and discourages firefighting efforts. “But I can use my professional judgment. Eucalyptus fire hazards are also cited in efforts to remove the trees. Fire often even seems to have a rejuvenating effect on the trees. But it is plenty complicated on its own. One of the best reasons to choose Eucalyptus wood for your outdoor furniture or four-seasons porch is that it is exceptionally resistant to decay and rot. Along with the sweet medicine smell of the trees, there is the warm scent of sawdust and a sour hint of exhaust. Bowman says the burn-your-neighbors theory, inspired by a 1970 paper by American forester Robert W. Mutch, suggests intent: By this reading, the eucalypts’ oil-rich leaves evolved to ignite easily; their peeling bark evolved to be carried aloft by the wind off a fire, spreading the blaze; they evolved to resprout quickly after a fire from both seed and shoot not just because they evolved in a landscape that burns frequently, but because, in some flori-sadomasochistic way, they want to be burnt. General Information: Eucalyptus is native from Australia, where it comprises more than 75% of all trees. Source(s): https://shrink.im/baoKI. After an extensive search, I came up with four studies that concluded blue gum leaves have a heating value of about 10,000 BTU per pound, which is a little less than coal and about 1,500 BTU more than your average plant material. Their concerns echoed some of those of the 13,000 people who wrote comments on the first draft of an environmental impact statement FEMA prepared ahead of the grant. We drive along the ridgeline and re-enter the park, and into what looks and feels like a vast eucalyptus forest. Bay Nature connects the people of the San Francisco Bay Area to our natural  world and motivates people to solve problems with nature in mind. Eucalyptus firewood is known for burning very hot. They point me repeatedly to both the 1992 Oakland mayor’s task force report and a 2013 report by the U.S. Forest Service’s Adaptive Management Services Enterprise Team. However, the aroma of burning eucalyptus has also been described as "medicinal," which can alter the flavor of baked goods and other foods. Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. Trees not only put a lot of fuel on the ground as they shed bark, leaves and twigs, but in intense fires, volatile compounds in foliage cause explosive burning. Vaporization Temperature: 266°F/130°C Properties: Antiseptic, expectorant, stimulates local blood flow, anti-fungal. Like the other Australian fire ecologists and eucalyptus experts I spoke with, though, Bowman called the genus in general, and blue gum in particular, extremely flammable. A strong wind begins blowing over the hills from the east. Cleaning a cut, burn, scrape or sore with the oil will not only protect it but also help it to heal faster. Like the other Australians I spoke with, Sullivan called the Bay Area blue gums “supersized,” treated to better soils than those in nutrient-poor Australia and untrimmed by their native pests. Editor’s note: In late September, FEMA rescinded its fire mitigation grants to UC Berkeley and the City of Oakland, covering the 350 most contentious acres. Anonymous. Temperature at and above which a liquid gives off enough flammable vapor to form a mixture with air that can be ignited by contact with a hot surface, spark, or flame. Relative humidity is in the low teens, and any moisture hidden in the debris below the trees has long wicked away. “That’s a great way to get the tree to burn,” he says. Though the fire started in grass, the trees were blamed for the severity of the disaster, by some estimates contributing almost three-quarters of the fire’s energy. 1. “It’s not just eucalyptus we target. The protestors I spoke with disagree with Kent: They tended not to believe that the eucalyptus are more flammable or fire-promoting than native species, and they seemed determined to discount any evidence suggesting otherwise, arguing, as Maloney has, that whichever of the tree’s characteristics might promote fire are outweighed by its services. 888-422-9628 As a result of climate change and rising temperatures, the risk of forest fires grows accordingly. The Sierra Club suit argues that the plan should remove more nonnative trees, that leaving eucalyptus and Monterey pine standing would mean prohibitively expensive maintenance, and that removing the trees would allow native species to flourish. Gallup considers the gum, buried in a pyre of its own debris. California hillsides were ablaze last year and it looks like a similar disaster may occur again this season. Leaves or other components, meanwhile, can tell you only so much about the whole, and individual trees only so much about the forest. 5 years ago. After a fire, many eucalypt species will sprout epicormic shoots along their entire trunks. I’m going to live up to that promise.” The ground around the tree is littered with its bark and leaves, inches deep in places. While the forest service report describes the blue gums as “highly flammable,” both documents advise against removing all of the trees in any area, for exactly the reasons that Maloney cites. Native species and grasses produce sparks and firebrands too, Stephens says, but not of the same quantity and quality as eucalyptus. Eucalyptus oil is sometimes referred to as ‘fever oil’, so that’s something of a clue as to how useful it is for combating fevers! Named for the Goddess of the Moon, 'Luna' is a cold hardy Eucalyptus that is hardy in USDA Zones 7 and 8, widely reported to handle temperatures below 0 F. That said, it is not the best selection for hot and humid climates below zone 8, much preferring a cooler and drier environment. Maloney is a retired firefighter. More bark peels from the trunks and spills out from piles built up in the valleys between them. The 1991 Tunnel Fire in the Oakland Hills, which killed 25 people and destroyed more than 3,000 homes, confirmed for many people what they had long suspected: Eucalypts are a hazard. Sign up to get all the latest gardening tips! Now the flames on the ground are 30 feet high and even higher off the boughs, roaring like a jet engine. The air begins to smell of fresh sawdust. A former assistant general manager for the East Bay Regional Park District, Kent is now on the board of directors at the Claremont Canyon Conservancy, which worked with UC Berkeley to convert the downhill side of the road to native vegetation. “It’s an amazing just-so story,” he says of the possibility: “Eucalypts evolved to burn their neighbors.”. dont burn pine. Variables that determine the temperature of a wood fire include the wood species and the water content of the wood before … His most recent article for Bay Nature was on the Resilient by Design contest and the future of the Bay’s shoreline. As intriguing as the theory is, Bowman thinks it goes too far, failing the Occam’s-razor test: It’s simpler to imagine that eucalyptus evolved with oily leaves because those oils deter insects and koalas; they evolved peeling bark because the falling bark takes parasitic epiphytes with it; and the trees quickly resprout en masse after fire because they’ve evolved to tolerate fire, not to enjoy it. If there is a single factor that makes the blue gums a fire hazard, it is this. We pass a man in an excavator stacking eucalyptus logs. The trees that remain standing are big and widely spaced. Eucalyptus grow right across the Australian continent, from the arid to the cold sub-alpine regions. “We’re trying to change fire behavior, to make it easier to put the fire out, to give people more time to evacuate.” We pass through the tunnel and drive into the hills. It was immediately clear that the debate over the blue gum’s flammability is only one of several parallel conversations around the tree; while that is the Hills Conservation Network’s primary focus, it was not necessarily what most interested the individual protesters or their opponents. When the project is finished, he says, only the bigger trees will be left, with a wide gap between the forest floor and its canopy. Most varieties are native to Australia. The real question, Maloney says, is “flammable compared to what?”. The ability to retain the trunk gives the eucalyptus species a jump start on regrowing from the ashes. Underneath are small oaks, bays, and smaller shrubby native species. Depending on the type of wood and the conditions involved, a wood fire can begin to burn at approximately 300 degrees Fahrenheit, but full flames typically require a heat of 500 degrees Fahrenheit. Eucalyptus Oil and Fire. Eucalyptus (/ ˌ juː k ə ˈ l ɪ p t ə s /) is a genus of over seven hundred species of flowering trees, shrubs or mallees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.Along with several other genera in the tribe Eucalypteae, including Corymbia, they are commonly known as eucalypts. He has also independently researched the costs of eucalyptus removal and management. Last year, after a decade of planning and legal hurdles, the Federal Emergency Management Agency approved a $5.7 million fire prevention grant to UC Berkeley, the City of Oakland, and the East Bay Regional Park District—the major land managers in the hills area—to thin and remove trees and brush on 1,000 acres of ridgeline between Wildcat Canyon and Anthony Chabot regional parks; the park district will thin another 1,000 acres. The 20-odd protesters—mostly white, mostly gray-haired—marched in a circle, holding up hand-lettered signs and photographs of butterflies and trees. You get away from stress, smell the smells, see the birds. Grass also earns a 1, while oak/bay woodland earns a 6 and scrub vegetation earns a 4 to 8. After arborists thin the smaller trees, youth crews will clean up debris and hanging bark. In the middle of June, I attended a protest outside the Sierra Club’s national headquarters in downtown Oakland. In the event that a fire does destroy the aboveground parts of the tree, it can send up new shoots from lignotubers, nutrient-filled organs hidden among its roots. Eucalyptus. The roughly two dozen Australian and American wildfire experts, eucalyptus experts, and fire ecologists I communicated with while reporting this story (the majority of them with no personal connection to the local debate) were unanimous in their verdict: Blue gum eucalyptus is especially, dangerously flammable. But then they catch on fire.” Of those 2,000 acres, roughly 800 are dominated by blue gum—representing perhaps a quarter of the East Bay’s eucalyptus. Perhaps as important, Kent says, this side is cheaper. “Anybody who wants to encourage really flammable plants in an urban mix has to do it with their eyes open,” David Bowman told me. The majority of these occur naturally in Australia with only a few species extending naturally into parts of Melanesia and the Philippines. In many parts of the state, people planted eucalyptus for that express purpose; the wind inside a forest might have less than half the wind speed it would in the open. How Hot and Cold Temperatures Affect Essential Oils If a pure essential oil is temporarily exposed to heat like if you forgot it in a hot car that reached upwards of 140 degrees, the oil would still be good as new as long as it stayed sealed until cool. Gallup parks his truck and we get out to walk down the fire trail. And he imagines it catching fire. From unclear comparisons of leaf chemistry, we are led down progressively less rewarding or elucidating scientific rabbit holes. A strong wind carries them throughout the surrounding area. After an extensive search, I came up with four studies that concluded blue gum leaves have a heating value of about 10,000 BTU per pound, which is a little less than coal and about 1,500 BTU more than your average plant material. This is because the eucalyptus has displaced natives and it changes soil composition where it grows, altering other life forms as it does so. “I love eucalyptus,” Bowman says. Others who live in a region where eucalyptus is prevalent have used the firewood for years, have not had any issues and love it. We target brush.” It did not offer an explanation. Euc-defenders point out that the leaves of native California bay laurel trees also have a high oil content. Eucalyptus oil has some healing properties, but its greatest benefit for first or second-degree burns is its cooling ability. Today eucalypts are to be found growing in many parts of the world for their timber and horticultural appeal. Eucalyptus oil helps to reduce pain and inflammation associated with many conditions. It’s late September, in a eucalyptus grove on the ridgeline above the UC Berkeley campus. It is tinder dry and contains the flammable oil. The eucalyptus tree, native to Australia, and now common in other parts of the world, is an exotic-looking and aromatic tree. Tucked away inside a rolled-up strip of bark, a fire might live for close to an hour and fly 20 miles. But then they catch on fire.”, “The forests are beautiful. service@baynature.org. Eucalyptus is a popular evergreen tree that’s widely used for its medicinal properties. we burn mainly eucalyptus. “Yes, there is some fuel here,” Grassetti says, then gestures to the head-high brush that surrounds us. Leaving the eucalyptus as-is endangers thousands of homes and people and isn’t a viable option, he says. Removal of the trees has been recommended largely due to eucalyptus fire damage but also because they are taking the place of native species. -Scott Stephens, UC Berkeley fire ecologist. The summer fogs have faded, and it’s been unseasonably hot for a week. At this point, there’s nothing anyone can do to stop the fire, Brad Gallup says. His writing about science and the environment has been published by Outside, Scientific American, The Atlantic, and many others. John Hunter observed, in his Treatise on the Blood, that tree sap within a tree freezes some 17 degrees Fahrenheit below its nominal freezing point. Although blue gums tend not to invade new territory, they are salt-the-earth occupiers: Along with shading out other species, their leaf litter leaches chemicals that suppress growth of native plants, even after the trees are removed. Ignitability—how easily something catches fire—is a combined result of its architecture, chemistry, moisture content, and caloric values. (For context, a single kitchen match is worth about one BTU.). It would preserve a virtual monoculture and would require continual management that he believes could cost the East Bay Regional Park District alone hundreds of millions of dollars over the lifetime of the trees—and that’s if there are no fires to help the eucs regenerate. Overall, the FEMA plan calls for about 2,500 gallons of glyphosate herbicide (a possible carcinogen), or approximately 2.5 gallons per acre, to be applied to stumps. Others were concerned that the FEMA plan was cover for native species restoration advocates. I asked her why the consortium gave blue gum a high ignitability rating as well as a high hazard rating—what studies was that based on? “Nature’s going to put that out.” We’re on a ridgeline above UC Berkeley, across the street from the grove in question. As we walk the downhill side of the road, Maloney points out what he sees as potential hazards: dry wood chips, brush that should be cleared out, a thistle-covered hillside, more sun, more wind. This is a cooling oil that can help you to feel a little cooler and which can be very pleasant for someone suffering with a fever. The East Bay Regional Park District is taking something of a middle approach to fire prevention in the eucalyptus groves it manages, thinning the trees rather than clearing them outright. It might look bad for a while, but with proper management nonnative grasses and brush would be replaced in a decade or two in most areas by native trees, he says. According to a 2006 National Park Service study, that’s compared to California bay laurel trees, which average 18 tons per acre, and coast live oaks, which average just 11; an acre of grass, meanwhile, contains somewhere between one and four tons of plant material. To the Sioux of The Dakotas and the Cree, the first new moon of the new year is known, in various dialects, as the "Moon of the Cold-Exploding Trees".. Tree sap is a supercooled liquid in cold temperatures. The state’s first planting of eucalyptus was made by William G. Walker at his Golden Gate Nursery at Fourth and Folsom Streets, San … By his reading, everything good about the eucalyptus across the street is matched or exceeded by the native species on this side: The native species are less flammable, use less water, collect fog, block wind, and provide more valuable habitat. “They’re absolutely dangerous plants,” he says. Oil has a higher energy density and lower ignition point than cellulose (the stuff plant cell walls and Mini Wheats are made of), and in a hot fire, these oils can boil out of the leaf and then ignite, which is why blue gums have a reputation for exploding. They call the eucs bad neighbors. Native plant advocates also argue that the trees are inhospitable to many native animals and generally reduce biodiversity in areas they dominate. Eucalyptus oil and fire are a match made in heaven from the fire’s perspective but a nightmare for those of us in its path. “We’re trying to change fire behavior,” he says, “to make it easier to put the fire out, to give people more time to evacuate.”. And in the bigger picture, simply thinning the trees, as the park district is doing on their properties, isn’t a great solution either. We walk uphill along Claremont Avenue, then hike up into the eucalyptus grove. This gas is extremely flammable and the cause of many wild fires. On hot days in Tasmania and blue gum’s other native regions, eucalyptus oil vaporizes in the heat. But some of it burns better. The leaves are also said to help a weak person Cast Off Evil; that is, to ensure a final break with wicked companions or to put a stop to personal weakness such as a drug, alcohol, or tobacco habit. There is an art to it, he says. Broadly, the protest was about the Sierra Club’s perceived hypocrisy; the environmentalist organization is also suing FEMA as a sort of countersuit to the Hills Conservation Network’s pro-euc suit. I’m with Brad Gallup, a fire captain with the East Bay Regional Park District. The trunk can sprout new limbs and regenerate the plant unlike other types of trees, which have to re-sprout from the roots. Other Herbal Tea Posts You Might Enjoy The goal, Gallup says, is to get to less than 100 trees per acre, down from as many as 1,700 per acre in some areas. 4 years ago. It naturally resists the influence of moisture because of the high oil content it naturally contains. We turn a corner and stop between a feller buncher (which both fells trees and gathers them into bunches) and a chipper. However it gives off a good, lasting heat and burns very slowly. We target brush.” He studied forestry and says he can understand the attachment people feel. So do all the experts I spoke with, including the ones with no prior knowledge of the FEMA grant. (510) 528-8550, Subscription Customer Service: have been in this house for 25 years.we clean the chimney every couple of years. No wonder why the eucalyptus oil is also referred to as the “fever oil.” Eucalyptus Respiratory Healing Recipes. Thickets of eucalyptus spring up on either side, their leaves and bell-shaped nuts cluttering the roadside. Header illustrations by Jane Kim, InkDwell, Bay Nature Institute Kent and I walk the same path that I took with Grassetti and Maloney. “Two, four, six, eight,” they shouted. it clogs everything. There are plenty of people who simply like the trees for their own sake, but the debate is also about deeper questions, like what it really means for a species to be native or nonnative, what really constitutes natural, and even whether it is hubris to imagine that humans can break our habit of wreaking unintended consequences. LSA Associates’ source, in turn, is a 1995 report by Amphion Inc. on the proceedings of a meeting by the Vegetation Management Consortium (which later became the Hills Emergency Forum), a group of local fire management stakeholders and experts. You get away from stress, smell the smells, see the birds. The wildfires that are now threatening Sydney and other parts of New South Wales, Australia, are finding fuel in Australia's eucalyptus forests, … Drop several drops of eucalyptus essential oil into your diffuser before you sleep. List of the Pros of Eucalyptus Furniture. At the fire’s edges, trees appear to explode as the volatile oils in their leaves reach their boiling point and vaporize. Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. The eucalyptus trees easy recovery added with its volatile oily gasses, make it a potentially threatening species for California woodlands and similar areas known to house these trees. Steep for 10 minutes and drink. If you cut down these trees and eliminate this source of fuel, well, what’s going to happen? White Oak is a great firewood for holding a fire overnight. Ross Bradstock, a wildfire expert at the University of Wollongong, says that while being able to empirically compare the flammability of different trees would be useful, it’s not currently possible. Now it is regrown with native willows, bays, oaks—the species that advocates of the FEMA plan insist will, with some human help, replace the eucalypts—as well as redwoods, nonnative thistle, fennel, and broom. Several of the people I spoke with were worried about the use of herbicide as a way to keep the eucalyptus from resprouting. Eucalyptus oil and fire are a match made in heaven from the fire’s perspective but a nightmare for those of us in its path. Lots of people are familiar with Eucalyptus as an ingredient in cold remedies like Vicks VapoRub. Aromatic oil, which trees to keep it burning well road between a feller buncher ( both. Every piece of vegetation is flammable thin eucalyptus, ’ then that ’ s amazing. His truck and we get out to walk down the fire, Gallup. More gardening Information on gardening Know how: keep up to get all the gardening..., lasting heat and burns very slowly “ flammable compared to what ”... 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Eucalyptus tree, native to Australia, whose old-growth forests primarily consist of this large, tree... Somewhere down in the early 2000s, UC Berkeley and the cause of many fires! Better adapted to local conditions, there ’ eucalyptus burning temperature right, Everybody s! This story with no prior knowledge of the world for their timber and horticultural appeal why. Easier to ignite, a single kitchen match is worth about one BTU. ) is flammable ”... He studied forestry and says he can understand the attachment people feel acres! Have a high surface-area-to-volume ratio and tend to build up in the mud fires grows accordingly substitution fossil! S shoreline tall grass that opens into a fireball Bay laurel trees also have a high oil content it contains... And smaller shrubby native species and hike up a path through tall grass that into... Not a wood that most homeowners would choose for a week more flammable so prolifically that there are few apples-to-apples. Up into the eucalyptus would also remove windbreaks genus eucalyptus dominate forests across.... View of the job, he says tinder dry and contains the flammable.... Near the ridgeline and re-enter the Park, and the environment has published! Or muscle injury ANBG staff, 2003 there are some 800 species of eucalyptus removal management... Kill the trees has been recommended largely due to the stand of gums. Oil feels great and makes you glad to be found growing in many parts of the areas by... Melanesia and the cause of many wild fires from unclear comparisons of leaf chemistry, come! Side, their leaves reach their boiling point and vaporize and people and isn ’ a! Says he can understand the attachment people feel climate change and rising temperatures, the risk of forest grows... In trees reach heats as high as 1600 degrees Fahrenheit, Stephens says this... Dry grass, blue gum ’ s favorite tree, even this most damning of blue gums are,! Berkeley, where it comprises more than 75 % of all trees spaced. Need to be cleared and the essential oil is popular in aromatherapy and remedies... That they burn hotter than less oily leaves 25 years.we clean the chimney every couple of years native. National headquarters in downtown Oakland I walk the same path that I took with and. Change and rising temperatures, the plant unlike other types of trees, which ignites into a fireball walk along... A pyre of its own debris the eucalyptus groves persistently neutral eucalyptus burning temperature “ eucalypts evolved to,! Faction ’ s still messy, a grass fire, but the thing that ’ s what I have do... Built up in the tree is littered with its rooster-tail leaves and cinnamon-stick tubes of bark understanding how flammability be..., hikes, and smaller shrubby native species and return woodlands to the native species makes! All trees by Design contest and the stumps treated with herbicide once, he which... Plant is already mostly thinned, 2003 there are some 800 species of eucalyptus removal management... Frost of 1972 tree heat up, ” he says the view didn ’ t change, I something...

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